NSJ Volume 2, Issue 1 April


ISSN 2948-3018(Online), ISSN 2948-300x (Print)
DOI: 10.53796/NSJ

NAPATA Scientific Journal (NSJ) Is Open Access Multidisciplinary Journal, Publishing Impactful Research Papers And Reviews In Any Area Of Science, In Both Disciplinary-Specific And Broad, Interdisciplinary Areas.

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NSJ offers authors a continuous-publication format and global distribution for their research via online copy. All articles are professionally copyedited and typeset to ensure quality.



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  • Professor Mohammed ElHassan Altikaena
  • Professor Abdallatif Ashmeeg
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NSJ Volume 2, Issue 1 April

Developmental Anomaly and Deformity in Fungia fungites (Anthozoa: Scleractinia:Fungidae) from Suakin and Port Sudan, Red Sea, Sudan


(Anthozoa: Scleractinia:Fungidae) from Suakin and Port Sudan, Red Sea, Sudan Zuheir N. Mahmoud1* 1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Sudan. *Corresponding address: Prof. Zuhier Mahmoud, Email: zuheirnm@hotmail.com. Tel. 00249122929940 or 00249911300333, ORCID number: 0000-0002-3257-0206 Received: 18/12/2022 Accepted: 11/1/2023 Abstract Background: The objective of this work is to describe two developmental anomalies and some deformity patters of the mushroom coral Fungia fungites. Methods: Macroscopic investigation of coral material was made by a hand lens. Results: nlike deformity, developmental anomaly is extremely rare in Fungiafungites. Keywords: Anomaly, Deformity, Fungia fungites, Corals.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.53796/nsj211

Intravenous Infiltration and Extravasation Prevention: Nurses` Practice at Pediatric Hospitals in Khartoum State


Howaida M Gassmalla Hassan1, Abdelmoniem M Hamid 2
, Afaf A Adam AbdAlla1& Egbal AAlgamar1*
1Alneelain University – Faculty of Nursing Sciences.Howaida76@hotmail.com Khartoum-Sudan,
2Alneelain University , Faculty of medicine abdelmoniemhamid@gmail.com Khartoum-Sudan,
1Alneelain University – Faculty of Nursing Sciences Aabdalla642@gmail.com -Khartoum-Sudan,
1Alneelain University – Faculty of Nursing Sciences aaalaaa2009@gmail.com-khartoum Sudan
*Corresponding author: Dr. Egbal Abbashar Algamar, Alneelin University, faculty of Nursing
Science, Khartoum, Sudan. E-mail: aaalaaa2009@gmail.com.
Received: 21/11/2022
Accepted: 5/01/2023
Background: Prevention is the best method for decreasing morbidity from peripheral
intravenous infiltrations and extravasation. Infiltration and extravasation are complications
of intravenous therapy involving unintended leakage of solution into the surrounding tissue.
Consequences range from local irritation to amputation. The aim of this study isto study
nurses’ performance about intravenous infiltration and extravasation.
Method: Descriptive cross-sectional, hospital based-study. Study conducted at four pediatric
hospitals in Khartoum state. 165 nurses were included using Stratified random sample to
select the nurses of different working experience. Data was collected by an observational
check list and analyzed by statistical packages of social sciences SPSS version 20.
Results: Finding illustrated that (47.9%) of participants inserted cannula from first attempt ,
(20%) of participants flushed cannula with distilled water ,to assess function of cannula, all
participants in present study covered the insertion site with non-transparent plaster, more
than half (57.6%) dilute vesicant medication with less amount than required. There was a
statistical significant association with qualifications (p value 0.001).
Conclusion: The study concluded that nurses had poor level of practice on intravenous
infiltration and extravasation.
Keywords: Extravasation, Intravenous infiltration, Prevention, Performance.


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Oral Hygiene Practices and Habits among Dental Students in Napata College in Sudan, 2021.


Dalia Ahmed Gasm El seed1*, Eman Abdulla Yousif2, Tagwa Abdul karem2, Basil Fisal2 , Amer Mohamed 2.1
periodontics department, Napata College, Program of Dentistry, Khartoum, Sudan. 2Napata
College, Program of Dentistry.
*Corresponding author: Dr. Dalia Ahmed Gasm Elseed, Assistant professor, periodontics
department, program of dentistry, Napata College, Khartoum, Sudan. E-mail: dalia_ahmed11111@yahoo.com.
Received: 19/11/2022
Accepted: 27/11/2022
Background: Poor oral hygiene and untreated oral diseases and conditions can have a
significant impact on the quality of life. Dental students, the future leaders in oral-health care,
have a significant role to play in public oral health education and its promotion. Dental students
in general have been found to have a positive oral health attitude but their own oral-health
behavior must improve if they are want to serve as positive models for their patients, families
and friends. Material and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional faculty – based study was
conducted on December 2021. A total of 92 dental students were involved from Napata College,
Dentistry Program, Sudan from (third, fourth and fifth academic level). Data were collected
using self-administered questionnaire including questions regarding oral hygiene practice and
habits. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 23.Results: Majority of the dental
students were female (59)64.1%. The commonest academic level was 3rdyear 37(40.2%),
students. The oral hygiene practice among dental students showed that regarding frequency of
brushing per day 50(54.3%) of dental students brushed their teeth twice per day, and the type of
tooth brush49 (53.3 %) of dental students used medium sized tooth brush and42(45.7%) with
circular motion and when asked about changing tooth brush52 (56.5%) changed tooth brush once
every three month. Regarding how often participants floss their teeth, the commonest answer
was never 45(48.9%), followed by occasionally. 43(46.7%) of dental students went for dental
checkup only if they had oral problems .61 (66.3%) of dental students had 1-4 decay teeth.
32(34.8%) ate a sugar containing snack or drink (other than tea and coffee) between meals more
than twice daily. Regarding if participants used tobacco products, the majority84 (91.3%) said
no. Most of the dental students60(65.2%) were strongly agree that tobacco had adverse effect in
the oral and dental tissue.
In the presents study 52(56.5%) of dental students aware that gingival diseases may progress to
cause periodontitis.
Conclusion: Overall, this study concluded that majority of dental students are aware of oral
hygiene practices including brushing frequency, and technique. But never use dental floss and
only went to the dental clinic if there was a problem .Dental students are aware about the adverse
effect of tobacco on the oral and dental health.
Key words: Oral health, Tobacco use, Undergraduate dental students.


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Reem Ahmed Hamid1*and Dawi Musa Hamed2 1Wildlife Research Center, Animal Research Co-corporation.2Faculty of Science, University ofKhartoum, Zoology Department
*Corresponding author: Dr. Reem Ahmed Hamid, Wildlife Research Center, Animal Research
Co-corporation, Khartoum, Sudan. E-mail: reemasah01@yahoo.com
Received: 8/11/2022
Accepted: 5/1/2023
Background: Daily activities of Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa waterbuck in Dinder National
Park were studied. Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the daily activities of the
waterbuck. The study was conducted in five meadows from February to May 2018. It was
repeated in 2019 during the same duration.
Methods: Direct observation methods were used to record the daily activities of herds.
Recording started from 6:00am to 5:59pm. During each hour three observations were done each
lasted 15min with a break of 5min between successive observations. Results: There was a
variation in daily activities between years. Differences within and between months, and within
and between years, and within and between meadows were observed (p<0.05 to p>0.01).
Keywords: Water buck, Daily Activities, Dinder Biosphere Reserve.


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Assessment of Drinking Groundwater Quality Using Water Quality Index in Elfasher, North Darfur State, Sudan

Dalal Mohammed.A1*, Adam Khalifa.M 2, Anas Jafar.A3, Mohamed Ahmed. H1.1Sudan Atomic Energy Commission P.O. Box 3001 .2FacultyofWaterandEnvironmentalEngineering, Sudan University of Science and Technology
3Department of Water Resources, Elfasher University
*Corresponding author: Dr. Dalal Mohammed Adam, assistant professor, Sudan Atomic Energy
Commission, Khartoum, Sudan. P.O. Box 3001. E-mail: dalalsaeed43@gmail.com.
Received: 3/02/2023
Accepted: 16/03/2023
Groundwater is the major supply of drinking water and additional uses in Darfur state, Sudan.
This study aims at evaluating the groundwater quality in that area by applying water quality
index method (WQI). Forty water samples were collected during the dry and wet seasons.
Field tests were carried out for Temperature, pH, Electrical Conductivity and Total Dissolved
Solids (TDS) whereas other chemical parameters of water quality for these samples were carried
in the Ministry of Health laboratory, in El Fasher city.
The chemical parameters determined included chloride, nitrates, nitrite, floride, sulphates,
sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, ammonium, bicarbonate and total
hardness. The mean and standard deviation of the examined physiochemical parameters of these
samples were found as follows:
The mean concentration and the standard deviation of pH, EC, TH, TDS, TUR, NO3, Mg2+,Ca2+, Na+, CO32-, K+, HCO3, SO42-, Cl-, F, and NH4+in study area was 7.26 ± 0.26, 864.2 ±
352.5 µS/cm, 172.3 ± 66.7 mg/l, 428.4 ± 178.5 mg/l, 4.4±8.8NTU, 37.1 ± 40.1 mg/l, 18.6 ± 17.1 mg/l, 57.5 ± 32.8 mg/l, 39.9 ± 25.2 mg/l, 115.5 ± 56.0 mg/l, 8.7 ± 4.9 mg/l , 231.1 ± 112.4 mg/l,
29.9 ± 22.2 mg/l, 45.8± 63.3 mg/l, 0.27 ± 0.26 mg/l and 0.27±0.28 mg/l in dry season,

Whereas the concentration of the above parameters in the wet season was: pH 7.76 ± 0.37, EC
1244.9 ± 436.1 µS/cm, TH, 242.1± 89.2 mg/l, TDS 618.6 ± 212.4 mg/l, Turbidity (TUR)
6.20±11.9 mg/l, NO354.1 ± 67.0 mg/l, , Mg2+ 19.7± 17.6 mg/l, Ca2+57.8 ± 32.8 mg/l, Na+45.1± 26.3 mg/l, CO3 2- 133.4 ± 53.6mg/l, K +10.6 ± 5.3 mg/l, HCO3 266.9 ±107.2 mg/l,SO4 242.5 ±25.2 mg/l, Cl26.2 ± 29.8 mg/l, F 0.49 ± 0.26 mg/l, NH+
4 0.48 ± 0.34 mg/l .
According to the WQI, the majority of the ground water samples is chemically appropriate for drinking.
The WQI values for these samples ranged from 19.93to 129.00 in the dry season and from 30.49
to 161.80 in the wet season. Wet season samples show poorer water quality than dry season
samples due to the greater quantity of dissolved solids. This is because groundwater moves and seeps more during the rainy season.
Keywords: Groundwater quality- Physicochemical parameters- Weighted Arithmetic method-WQ.


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Preconception Care – River Nile State – 2022 Awareness of Married Female Adolescents


Marium Hussin Zeyada Idriss1*, Faiza Taha2, Ehsan Alyamani Abdallah31 Faculty of nursing Science, Al-Neelain University, 2 Department of obstetrics and gynecological nursing
-Faculty of Nursing Science – University of Khartoum-Sudan
3Department of obstetrics and gynecological nursing -Department Faculty of Nursing Science – AlNeelain University-Khartoum-Sudan
*Correspondence author˸ Marium Hussein Zeyada Idriss, Faculty of Nursing Science, Al-Neelain
University, Khartoum, Sudan.

E mail˸ mariumzeada555@gmail.com.
Received: 2/3/2023
Accepted: 21/3/2023
Background: Adolescent pregnancy is a major health and socioeconomic problem faced
worldwide, with distinctive medical and psychosocial complications for the mother, family and
society. It demands specific attention to understand their problem and its causative factors.
Adolescents’ awareness and health lifestyle before pregnancy can influence both the fertility and
the health of the mother and child. Preconception care is a curial part because it increases the
chance of the couple’s care of the mother’s health, and it is an integral part of antenatal care
because it has impending care for women and reducing risk of both the mother and the newborn.
It promotes a healthy lifestyle and improves readiness for pregnancy. Besides, it is important to
minimize fetal malformation. Objective: The present study aims to assess the awareness of
married female adolescents regarding preconception care. It attempts to highlight the gap of
female adolescents and child health systems at policy and management heights, and helping
promote healthy behaviors. Methods: This was a community-based cross-sectional study which
was carried out in River Nile state at Sidoon Town. It included (205) participants who were
selected through simple random sampling technique. The data was collected using a standardized
administered questionnaire and were analyzed by the Statistical Package of Social Sciences
(SPSS), version16 and were presented in the form of tables and figures. Logistic regression was
used to identify possible predictors using 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05. Results:
The study revealed that the overall awareness of preconception care was fair regarding important
practices like taking folic acid, good healthy diet, controlling the medical problems before
pregnancy and screening of hereditary diseases. There is statistically significant association
between the level of awareness and husband relationship (P-value =0.005). The Chi square test
of overall model shows that the overall logistic regression model is highly significant (P-value =
0.002). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that married female adolescents’
awareness regarding preconception care is low. The study also revealed that the awareness
simplified with educational status of female adolescents and the overall model shows that the
overall logistic regression model is highly significant. Recommendations: Heath education in
the study area is needed to increase their awareness level using the media and posters since most
of the participants were from low educational backgrounds and were school dropouts.
Key words: Perception, awareness, Adolescent, preconception.


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Clinical Psychology: The Khartoum School


El-Zubeir Beshir Taha1* 1Department of Psychology, Napata University College, Khatoum, Sudan.
*Corresponding author: Professor Elzubeir Beshir Taha, Department of Psychology,
Napata University College, Khartoum, Sudan.

E-mail: elzubairbashir@hotmail.com.
Received: 8/03/2023
This is a review of the development of concepts and practices of mental health care in
Sudan (henceforth referred to as the Khartoum School). An account is given of The
Sudanese spiritual mental healing legacy which seems to have formulated the ethos of the
Khartoum School. An exposition is then set forth of the founders of this school namely:
Al Mahi, Baashar and Badri consecutively.Al Mahi as the grand founder is described as
the pathfinder eclectically amassing the psychological wisdom of old Sudan Kushite
culture, Greco- roman, Islamic and modern psychiatric sources.
Baashar is shown to have contributed furthermore, in indigenizing and Islamising the
clinical concepts and practices of the school.
Finally, Badri is shown to have promoted the basic tenets of this school from islamization
into spritualization. The review concludes by explaining the Impact of the founders on
research and practices of their students and actors involved.
Keywords: Clinical Psychology, Mental Healing, Al Mahi, Baashar, Badri, Tafakkur


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Memorial of a Sudanese Scholar Prof .Malik Badri (1932-2021)

Editor – Dr Mohammed Elhassan Altikena
Associate Professor, Napata College

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